Track 1: Obesity
Obesity is one of the most pervasive, chronic diseases in need of new strategies for medical treatment and prevention. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.
Track 2: Obesity and root causes
Unhealthy Food Choices: Eating fast or processed food instead of fruits, vegetables and unrefined carbohydrates, such as wholemeal bread and brown rice. Drinking too much alcohol causes obesity as it contains a lot of calories, heavy drinkers are often overweight.
Lack of exercise and physical activity: Many people have jobs which involves them to sit at desk most of the day. They also have a tendency to rely on their cars instead of walking, or cycling. An inactive lifestyle also raises risk for diabetes, coronary heart disease, colon cancer, high blood pressure and other health problems.
Emotional Factors: Many people eat more than usual when feel depressed or have a low self-esteem or when they are bored, angry, or stressed. Over time, this overeating leads to weight gain and causes overweight or obesity.
Genetics: There are some rare genetic conditions such as Prader-Willi syndrome, causes obesity.
Medicines: Medicines also cause weight gain. Some of these medicines include corticosteroids, antidepressants, and seizure medicines which often slow the rate at which body burns calories as well as increases appetite and causes the body to hold water.
Track 3: Pathophysiology and metabolism
The amount of energy that we consume as food is modulated by various mechanisms and networks that connect the brain with the gut. This process is the key by which the body weight attained is regulated. Obesity is indicated by an increase in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Its metabolic consequences include insulin resistance which is attributable to an increase in fat deposition in Liver, the omentum and skeletal muscles. A Virus has been found recently which is associated with obesity. Human Adenovirus Ad-36 is known to cause adiposity in animal models and also enhances differentiation as well as lipid accumulation in human.
Obesity is considered to be a major health hazard. In 1997 the World Health Organization (WHO) formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. In 2013, an estimated 2.1 billion adults were overweight as compared with 857 million in 1980.The rate of obesity also increases with age at least up to 50 or 60 years old. Obesity was once considered only to be a problem of high-income countries. But now obesity rates are rising worldwide. These increases have been seen most in urban settings. The only remaining region of the world where obesity is not common is sub-Saharan Africa.
Track 5: Health Effects of Obesity
Obesity has a very negative effect on health. People who are obese compared to those with a normal or healthy conditions are at increased risk for many serious health conditions. The health effects associated with obesity include:
· All-causes of death (mortality)
· High blood pressure (Hypertension)
· High LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides
· Type 2 diabetes
· Coronary heart disease
· Gallbladder disease
· Osteoarthritis (a breakdown of cartilage and bone within a joint)
· Sleep apnea and breathing problems
· Some cancers (endometrial, breast, colon, kidney, gallbladder, and liver)
· Low quality of life
· Body pain and difficulty with physical functioning
Track 6: Genetic Determinants of Obesity
Genes are responsible for affecting the amount and types of food that we prefer to eat. We all have noticed that some people stay thin whatever they seem to eat and some become obese. Research shows that obesity tends to run in families and studies with twins and adopted children have shown that genes play a key role in this. Genome-wide association studies examine hundreds and thousands of genetic markers across thousands of individuals’ complete sets of DNA to find gene variations that may cause a particular disease. Numerous genetic association studies have been recorded, but only a few have been successfully replicated. Large studies and new research tools will advance us to an understanding of the different genes and their interactions to cause obesity, which may help guide successful interventions and treatments.
Track 7: Hormonal Imbalances from Obesity
Hormones are chemical messengers that control processes in our body. They are also one of the important factors in causing obesity. The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth hormone influence our appetite, metabolism (the rate at which our body burns kilojoules for energy), and body fat distribution. Obese People have high levels of these hormones that encourage abnormal metabolism and also in accumulation of body fat.
A system of glands, known as the endocrine system, secretes hormones into our bloodstream. The endocrine system works along with the nervous system and the immune system and help our body cope with different events and stresses. The different deficits of hormones can lead to obesity and, as well as on the other hand, obesity can lead to the change in hormones.
Track 8: Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity is a condition where a child accumulates excess body fat and which in turn negatively affects the health. The diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI (Body Mass Index). It is being recognized as a serious public health concern. Children become overweight and obese for plenty of reasons. Of them the most common causes include genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or simply a combination of these factors. Only in rare cases overweight is caused by a medical condition such as a hormonal problem. For such cases generally physical exam including some blood tests can rule out the possibility of a medical condition as the cause for obesity.
Adiposopathy can be defined as a pathological dysfunction of adipose tissue which may be promoted by the accumulation of excess body fat. These dysfunctions may in turn contribute to adverse metabolic conditions associated with obesity and other metabolic syndrome. Adiposity can cause fat mass–related cardiovascular disease (CVD). All of these dysfunctions may contribute to excessive fat-related metabolic diseases including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and Dyslipidaemia.
Sleep Apnea is a serious sleep disorder which is characterized mainly by
pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause in
breathing can last for a few seconds to several minutes which happens for many
times at night. The airway repeatedly becomes blocked which limits the amount
of air that reaches your lungs. When this happens, one may snore loudly or make
choking noises while trying to breathe. As a result the brain and body becomes
deprived of oxygen and causes one to wake up. This may happen a few times a
night, or in more severe cases, several hundred times a night.
There are mainly three forms of sleep apnea: obstructive (OSA), central (CSA), and a combination of the two called mixed. OSA is the most common form. Risk factors for OSA include being overweight, allergies, and enlarged tonsils. In OSA, breathing is interrupted by a blockage of airflow, while in CSA breathing stops due to a lack of effort to breathe.
Treatment normally includes lifestyle changes, wearing mouthpieces and breathing devices, and surgery. Breathing devices include the use of a CPAP machine. Without proper treatment sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, diabetes, heart failure, and irregular heartbeat, obesity, and motor vehicle collisions.
Track 11: Diabetes and Obesity
Obesity increases the risk of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes. In obesity, the body produces enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of insulin. Being overweight stresses the insides of the inside cells. Overeating stresses the membranous network inside cells called endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this position, the endoplasmic reticulum has more nutrients to process more than it can handle and so it sends out an alarm signal signalling the cell to dampen down the different insulin receptors on the cell surface. This progresses to insulin resistance which is one of the sure signs of diabetes.
Track 12: Cancer and Obesity
Several studies have explored that why being overweight may affect cancer risk through a number of mechanisms, possible reasons include:
· Immune system inflammation and function
· Increase in levels of certain hormones, such as insulin and estrogen
· Factors that regulate cell growth, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)
· Proteins that influence how the body uses certain hormones, such as sex hormone-binding globulin
Track 13: Cardiovascular and Obesity
Obesity is among the leading causes of elevated cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in obese people is indirectly mediated by the increased frequency of well-known factors like Hypertension, Diabetes and a. Because of its dysfunctional effects on various cardiovascular risk factors and its adverse effects on cardiovascular structure and function, obesity has a major effect on the different cardiovascular diseases including heart failure (HF), coronary heart disease (CHD), sudden cardiac death, and atrial fibrillation, and is associated with reduced overall survival.
Track 14: Side effects of Obesity on Pregnancy
Obesity increases the risk of the following problems during pregnancy:
Track 15: Dietary and Lifestyle changes
Calorie restriction and physical activity can help overweight, obese,
and even severely obese people lose weight, according to new research presented
at the annual meeting of the Obesity Society.
Doctors recommend that following a balanced diet and gradually becoming more
physically active can help manage obesity.
Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for severe obesity: what works?
1. Balance Diet
2. Healthy eating habits
3. Physical exercise
Track 16: Advance Treatment for Obesity
Treatment of obesity starts with setting goals and making lifestyle
changes, such as eating fewer calories and being physically active. Medicines
and weight-loss surgery also are options for some people if lifestyle changes
aren't enough. These lifestyle changes include:
1. Goal setting
2. Stimulus control
3. Non-food rewards
4. Relapse prevention
5. Physical Activity
despite the benefits of providing lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy and
bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity are also recommended.
Track 17: Diet, Nutrition and Obesity
Good nutrition, physical activity, and a healthy body weight are essential parts of a person’s overall health and well-being. Together, these can help decrease a person’s risk of developing serious health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancer. A healthful diet, regular physical activity, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight also are paramount to managing health conditions so they do not worsen over time.
Track 18: Weight Loss Medication and Side effects
Weight-loss medicines approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are also an option for some people. If someone is not successful at losing 1 pound a week after 6 months of using lifestyle changes, medicines may help. One should only use medicines as part of the program that includes diet, physical activity, and behavioural changes. Some of the important medicines used are:
· Lorcaserin Hydrochloride
Other medicines like Ephedra, Chromium, Diuretics, herbal laxatives, Hoodia are also prescribed.
Track 19: Physical Activity and Yoga
main types of physical activity are aerobic, muscle-strengthening, bone
strengthening, and stretching. One can do physical activity with light,
moderate, or vigorous intensity. The level of intensity depends on how hard one
has to work to do the activity. People vary in the amount of physical activity
they need to control their weight.
Most people lead inactive lives and are not motivated to do more physical activities. As obese people mostly are not active in the past, they should start physical activity slowly and build up the intensity a little at a time.
When starting out, one way to be active is to do more everyday activities, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator and doing household chores and yard work. The next step is to start walking, biking, or swimming at a slow pace, and then build up the amount of time you exercise or the intensity level of the activity.
To lose weight and gain better health, it's important to get moderate-intensity physical activity. Choose activities that you enjoy and that fit into your daily life.
Track 20: Obesity and Metabolic Surgery
The Two most common weight-loss surgeries include banded gastroplasty
and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In gastroplasty, a band or staples are used to
create a small pouch at the top of the stomach. This surgery limits the amount
of food and liquids the stomach can hold.
Weight-loss surgeries can improve one’s health and weight. However, the surgery can be risky, depending on one’s overall health. Gastroplasty has few long-term side effects, but one must limit the food intake dramatically. Also, lifelong medical follow-up is needed after both the surgeries. The doctor may also recommend a program both before and after surgery to help with diet, physical activity, and coping skills.